Last updated on: 2/14/2024 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.

1.Richard Heinberg, The Party's Over: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies, 2005
2.Energy Information Administration, "History of Energy in the United States: 1635-2000," (accessed May 20, 2009)
3.James C Williams, “History of Energy,", Apr. 25, 2006
4.Lidian Chen "China's Petroleum Industry," (accessed July 21, 2009)
5.Robert W. Righter, Wind Energy in America: A History, 1996
6.Lewis Mumford, Technics and Civilization, 1934
7.U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Primary Energy Consumption by Source,” (accessed Sep. 28. 2023)
8.Sarah Kaplan, “World Is on Brink of Catastrophic Warming, U.N. Climate Change Report Says,”, Mar. 20, 2023
9.United Nations, “Renewable Energy – Powering a Safer Future,” (accessed Feb. 14, 2024)
10.Noelle Eckley Selin, “Renewable Energy,”, Oct. 1, 2023
11.Government of Iceland, “Energy,” (accessed Oct. 3, 2023)
12.Silvia Morimoto, “The Case of Paraguay: Innovation and Energy Efficiency for Sustainable Development,”, Nov. 8, 2021
13.International Trade Administration, “Costa Rica’s Renewable Energy,”, Jan. 11, 2022
14.International Energy Agency, “Norway 2022: Executive Summary,”, 2022
15.International Trade Administration, “Uruguay - Country Commercial Guide: Renewable Energy Equipment,”, Sep. 22, 2022
16.International Trade Administration, “Democratic Republic of the Congo: Energy,”, Dec. 14, 2022
17.DENA German Energy Agency, “Factsheet: Renewable Energy in Albania,”, June 2021
18.The Borgen Project, “Renewable Energy in Nicaragua,”, June 26, 2020
19.International Trade Administration, “Kenya - Country Commercial Guide: Energy - Electrical Power Systems,”, Aug. 19, 2022
20.International Energy Agency, “New Zealand Can Use Its Clean Electricity Strengths to Decarbonise Its Energy System, Says New IEA Report,”, Apr. 27, 2023
21.International Trade Administration, “Denmark - Country Commercial Guide: Renewable Energy Products,”, Dec. 2, 2022
22.International Trade Administration,” Energy Resource Guide: Germany - Renewable Energy,” (accessed Oct. 4, 2023)
23.International Trade Administration, “Morocco - Country Commercial Guide,”, Nov. 11, 2022
24.Georgina Kyriacou, “How Much Do Renewables Contribute to the UK’s Energy Mix and What Policies Support Their Expansion?,”, June 25, 2023
25.Climate Council, “11 Countries Leading the Charge on Renewable Energy,”, Aug. 15, 2022
26.Henry Thacker, “Top 5 Countries with 100% Renewable Energy in Electricity Generation,”, Feb. 6, 2023
27.Swedish Institute, “Swedes Use a Lot of Energy, yet Emissions Are Low. The Key? Renewable Energy.,”, Nov. 11, 2022
28.Julia Pyper, “Trump Signs Legislation to Promote Advanced Nuclear Reactor Technology,”, Oct. 1, 2018
29.Michael Shellenberger, “Why Renewables Can’t Save the Planet,”, Feb. 27, 2019
30.Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser, “France: CO2 Country Profile,” (accessed Oct. 24, 2023)
31.U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Germany,”, December 2020
32.World Nuclear Association, “Nuclear Power in France,”, Aug. 2023
33.Frank J. Macciarola, “API Statement On Climate Proposal From House Select Committee,”, June 30, 2020
34.International Energy Agency, “The Role of Gas in Today’s Energy Transitions,”, July 2019
35.Timothy Gardner, “US 2022 Power Plant Emissions Fell On Switch From Coal to Gas -EPA,”, Feb. 27, 2023
36.Cornelis van Kooten, “Renewable’ Energy Can’t Replace Fossil Fuels,”, Dec. 13, 2021
37.U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Primary Energy Consumption by Source,” (accessed Sep. 28. 2023)
38.Sam Winstel, “Common Sense Approach To Reliable, Low-Emissions Electricity,”, July 31, 2020
39.Union of Concerned Scientists, “A Brief History of Nuclear Accidents Worldwide,”, Oct. 1, 2023
40.Natural Resources Defense Council, “Nuclear Power 101,”, Jan. 5, 2022
41.World Nuclear Association, “What Are the Effects of Nuclear Accidents?,” (accessed Oct. 24, 2023)
42.Gregory Jaczko, “I Oversaw the U.S. Nuclear Power Industry. Now I Think It Should Be Banned.,”, May 17, 2019